Monday, March 5, 2012

All You Need to Know About Integrating Quotations

by Griffin Moar

The following is taken from OWL at Purdue University, which is an awesome source if you’re looking for more writing help!

Always remember to ICE:
  • Introduce the quote,
  • Cite your source,
  • and Explain how it supports your idea.

Use a comma to introduce a quotation after a standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase, or a dependent clause. For example: “He asked,” “She stated,” “According to Bronson,” or “As Shakespeare wrote.”

Use a colon to introduce a quotation after an independent clause.
  • As D.H. Nachus explains, “The gestures used for greeting others differ greatly from one culture to another.”
  • D.H. Nachus explains cultural differences in greeting customs: “Touching is not a universal sign of greeting. While members of European cultures meet and shake hands as a gesture of greeting...”

Put commas and periods within closing quotation marks, except when a parenthetical reference follows the quotation. When using parenthetical references, remember to put all punctuation after the closing parenthesis.
  • He said, “I may forget your name, but I never remember a face.”
  • History is stained with blood spilled in the name of “civilization.”
  • Mullen, criticizing the apparent inaction, writes, “Donahue’s policy was to do nothing” (27).

Put colons and semicolons outside closing quotation marks.
  • Williams described the experiment as “a definitive step forward”; other scientists disagreed
  • Benedetto emphasizes three elements of what she calls her “Olympic journey”: family support, personal commitment, and great coaching.

Put a dash, question mark, or exclamation point within closing quotation marks when the punctuation applies to the quotation itself and outside when it applies to the whole sentence.
  • Philip asked, “Do you need this book?”
  • Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, “You must work harder”?
  • Sharon shouted enthusiastically, “We won! We won!”

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